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Continued from: Anaphylaxis, you can help.

In some cases, there may be a delayed reaction, or anaphylaxis may occur without an apparent trigger.

If you're with someone having an allergic reaction with signs of anaphylaxis:

  • Immediately call 999 or 112

  • Ask the person if he or she is carrying an epinephrine autoinjector to treat an allergic attack (for example, EpiPen or Twinject).

  • If the person says he or she needs to use an autoinjector, ask whether you should help inject the medication. This is usually done by pressing the autoinjector against the person's thigh.

  • Loosen tight clothing and cover the person with a blanket. Don't give the person anything to drink.

  • If there's vomiting or bleeding from the mouth, turn the person on his or her side to prevent choking.

  • If there are no signs of breathing, coughing or movement, begin CPR. Do uninterrupted chest presses — about 100 every minute — until paramedics arrive.

  • Get emergency treatment even if symptoms start to improve. After anaphylaxis, it's possible for symptoms to recur. Monitoring in a hospital setting for several hours is usually necessary.

If you're with someone having signs of anaphylaxis, don't wait to see whether symptoms get better. Seek emergency treatment right away. In severe cases, untreated anaphylaxis can lead to death within half an hour. Allergies recognition and treatment are covered in detail within Occupational First Aid Courses.

Signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis include:

  • Skin reactions including hives, itching, and flushed or pale skin

  • Swelling of the face, eyes, lips or throat

  • Constriction of the airways, leading to wheezing and trouble breathing

  • A weak and rapid pulse

  • Nausea, vomiting or diarrhoea

  • Dizziness, fainting or unconsciousness

Some common anaphylaxis triggers include:

  • Medications

  • Foods such as peanuts, tree nuts, fish and shellfish

  • Insect stings from bees, yellow jackets, wasps, hornets and fire ants

If you've had any severe allergic reactions in the past, ask your doctor if you should be prescribed an epinephrine autoinjector to carry with you. Ensuring you have your medicine with you at all times and it is easily accessible are the best steps to ensure you get the help required when needed.

The best first aid for anaphylaxis and severe allergies starts with the sufferer of the condition, who is prepared to have emergency medicine with them and ready at all times.

Take care. Chat soon.


Continued from: Life Saving Beetroot

Wow, there are some interesting facts in a recent study funded by the Irish Heart Foundation.


Dr Eamon Dolan is a stroke physician in Connolly Hospital, Dublin. He helps many Stroke survivors manage their Blood Pressure. Dr Dolan's recent research looked into the benefits of beetroot for those with high blood pressure. Did you know there are almost 1 million people in Ireland who have high blood pressure – many who don’t know it? And this is predicted to increase to 1.2 million by 2020.

Of these people, 1 in 10 cannot be treated with high blood pressure medication. Being able to control high blood pressure is key to preventing stroke and other life-threatening heart conditions. As Dr. Dolan says, even a small reduction in blood pressure can make all the difference.

Thanks to the support of our donors, Dr. Dolan’s research may provide a safe and inexpensive treatment that could help people right now and prevent the onset of stroke, heart failure and heart disease.

WHY BEETROOT?  I hear you ask.

Researchers have found that nitrate in vegetables, such as beetroot, can be easily broken down by the body and converted to nitric oxide. Nitric oxide is recognised as an important regulator of blood pressure in that it expands the walls of the arteries, allowing blood to flow more freely.

Dr Dolan hopes to show that beetroot juice has a long-term effect on reducing blood pressure in patients who are hypertensive and on medication. He has already completed an initial study showing that beetroot juice, given to patients over a 24-hour period, lowers blood pressure.

Dr. Dolan I want to give you a pat on the back, this is great research which can have huge benefit into the future. I know what I will be planting in the vegetable patch this spring.


Continued from: Don't Help, You'll get Sued!

“I Might be sued”


One of the most common questions we receive is, "Will I get sued if I give first aid to a casualty?"


Simple rules to work by: 


Rule 1:  Act in the best interest of the casualty

Rule 2:  Only treat in the manner in which you have been trained

Rule 3:  Only treat if you are willing and able to do so


Two common situations we are often asked about:


1.  Do I move an unconscious casualty who isn't breathing if they have a suspected spinal injury? 

This dilemma is frequently perpetuated on TV or even in reality: "Don't move them! They might have a neck injury!"


Remember the 3 Rules:

1. If you are willing to treat the casualty, being aware of the seriousness of the situation and confident in your abilities, then proceed.

2. Opening the airway in the manner in which you have been trained limits the potential damage to a spinal injury.

3. This is a life-saving procedure which is in the best interest of the casualty.

It may be that the casualty has a spinal injury, and you might make it worse by opening the airway, but an unconscious casualty – especially if on their back – cannot maintain their own airway.  If their airway is blocked, they will not be able to breathe, and this takes priority over any injury.   If you have treated the casualty in line with your training, it is, therefore, unlikely that a claim will be made against you.


 2.  Am I liable if I break someone's ribs when performing CPR?

Remember the 3 Rules


1. If you are willing to treat the casualty, being aware of the seriousness of the situation and confident in your abilities, proceed.

2. Performing CPR is a skill that needs to be taught in order to be effective.  Performing CPR as you have been trained will protect you to a greater extent than violently or haphazardly ‘jumping on someone's chest' because that is your interpretation of how it should be done.

Whilst a broken rib is undesirable, for a casualty who is not breathing and assumed to have suffered cardiac arrest, it is largely irrelevant.   Following a call to 999 and locating a defibrillator (if there is one available), perfusion of oxygenated blood to the vital organs through effective CPR is in the best interest of the casualty.  It is certainly possible that a rib can be broken whilst performing CPR, even if trained and practised to the best standards.   A broken rib is not a priority of a casualty in this situation.  Because of these two factors it is unlikely that a claim would be brought against you.

In today's litigious society, there can be a reluctance to help out in emergency situations. Fear of liability for mistakes can paralyze even the most helpful Good Samaritan.

The truth is that there are laws to protect the general public from liability during rescues or rescue attempts. Good Samaritan laws are meant to protect those who come to the aid of others for no other reason than kindness. Good Samaritan laws only help if the rescuer (or would-be rescuer) is acting without any expectation of reward. In other words, if you are getting paid to rescue, you aren't a Good Samaritan. Paid rescuers are expected to do their jobs correctly and can be held accountable for mistakes.

The best way to protect yourself from possible liability when helping others is to always act on behalf of the victim. That may sound obvious, but if your motivation is to be a hero and not to help out a fellow human, then you risk making the types of mistakes that are not covered by Good Samaritan laws.

Here are some good tips for staying out of court:

• Take a CPR and first aid class

• Follow your training

• Use common sense

• Don't do anything you're not trained to do

• Get professional help for the victim

• Do not accept gifts or rewards

Following these tips might help you stay out of bad situations even as you help others get out of theirs.

Thank you for taking the time to consider learning the skills that can quite literally save somebody’s life. First Aid does not need to be something special that only a few know, it should be simple and everyday for everyone.


Best of luck with your plans.


Continued from: Learning First Aid

First aid training may help you decide when to go to the emergency department. Emergency departments are expensive and busy. The average time spent in an emergency department visit is over 3 hours. Many folks don't want to go to the ER if they don't have to go.

Most importantly, first aid training may save your life or the life of someone you love. First aid is just that - first! Good first-aid training helps you recognize and treat life-threatening conditions and injuries.

What Does First Aid Training Cover?

First aid classes are designed to give students the tools to save lives.


Common topics covered in basic first aid classes include:

  1. Emergency Scene Management 

  2. Safety and Protection from Infection 

  3. Initial Assessment of Victims 

  4. Recognizing Emergencies

  5. When to Call 911 

  6. Shortness of Breath 

  7. Heart Attacks 

  8. Strokes 

  9. Heat Exhaustion 

  10. Hypothermia 

  11. Bleeding Control

  12. Burn Treatment

  13. Adult CPR

  14. Broken Bones 

  15. Head and Neck Injuries

What's the Difference Between CPR and First Aid Training?

First aid training covers a wide variety of emergencies and emergency scenes. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is one procedure that everyone should know. If you only have time for one class, take CPR. 

There are many levels of CPR and First Aid training; have a look at the list of courses before you decide which one is right for you.

Talk to us today if you have any questions or would like to book a course

Continued from: My Dog Saved my Life

Choking is an emergency - if you can't breathe, then you will die. If you see someone who appears to be choking, you should always ask them, "Are you choking?" before you start thumping them on the back. Lexi the Labrador didn't follow the correct steps, but he is a dog!

A 67-year-old pensioner from Withernsea was saved from choking by his 18-month-old Labrador jumping on his back. Alan Spencer was eating his dinner when a pickled onion became lodged in his throat. After trying for three minutes to dislodge it, he made his way to the door to get help when he collapsed. Lexi, the Labrador, jumped on the middle of his back, and this dislodged the onion, allowing Alan to breathe again. Although his back and throat were sore for a few ways, he didn’t suffer any other ill effects.


Read the full story here

There won’t always be a clever dog like Lexi around if someone is choking, so having learnt what to do in case of an emergency, you could save someone's life.

Here at STAC, choking is covered in all of our first aid courses.

Continued from: Pioneering Procedure Used At Roadside to Save Cyclist's Life

Victoria was cycling to work along Clerkenwell Road in London when she was crushed by a skip lorry, suffering horrific injuries to her leg. A team from the London Air Ambulance arrived at the scene within five minutes in a rapid-response car. The helicopter, which was attending another scene when the call came, arrived soon after. As part of our courses at STAC, we cover when to call the emergency services.


Check out the course here

Air Ambulance doctors and paramedics performed a pioneering procedure called Reboa (resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta) at the roadside after deciding that her injuries were so severe that she wouldn’t survive the journey to hospital. She was given an anaesthetic at the roadside.

The surgery involves a device consisting of a thin plastic tube with a balloon at the top being inserted into a vein in the leg, and it is then passed up into the pelvis and inflated temporarily, cutting off the blood supply to stop the bleeding. The procedure is used when it is impossible to compress damaged blood vessels that are bleeding internally deep inside the body.

Brett Rocos, Trauma Fellow at North Bristol NHS Trust, believes that Reboa is likely to become more common in roadside accidents. London Air Ambulance are the only service carrying out the procedure at the moment, but as medics become more practised, it will be used more widely.

Here at STAC, we won’t show you how to perform Reboa or any other surgery, but you will learn what to do if someone is bleeding externally.

Although doctors had to amputate her leg, Victoria believes that, although it is a very unlucky thing to have happened, she is lucky to be alive.  Her short-term goal is to be up and walking again, and she would like to cycle again if possible.

While the number of people killed in cycling accidents in Ireland is decreasing, the number of serious injuries is increasing.

To find out what you can do to help in the case of an accident, take a First Aid Course.

Contact STAC


Unit 11A Ballycummin Village,
Raheen, Limerick



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